A glance at the Philosophy of Science

It is important that we review modern philosophies of science since they have served to set the rules for how psychologists have thought about their research for the past 80 years. In other words, if we want to understand what psychologists think they are doing when they carry out scientific research we need to understand their philosophies of science. However, as we shall see there are many different models of the scientific endeavour apart from those that most psychologists use. The evolution of ideas about how to do science indicates that some psychological research is still stuck in an earlier framework which has been supplanted by more recent and arguably more challenging and liberating models of how to carry out empirical investigations.

What is the ‘philosophy of science’?

Philosophies of science are ultimately concerned with the question of how we should carry out scientific research given our understanding of the nature of knowledge. Originally, philosophers of science sought to explain how science should be conducted by looking at successful scientists such as Einstein. More recently though the philosophy of science has moved on to consider how most scientists actually work given the social and practical circumstances of their work.

Reality, Knowledge and Science

We all have questions about the world around us. What is real and what is fiction? What do we know and how do we know it? How can we find out more about the world? Philosophers analyse these questions intensively. They are interested in the relation between ontology (the study of what actually exists), epistemology (the study of what knowledge is, what we can know and what the limits of knowledge are) and methodology (the study of the ways in which the world can be studied).

It should go without saying that the kinds of assumption we make about what exists affects what we consider we can know about it. which in turn affects how we think it is best to study it. Thus our ontological assumptions affect our epistemological assumptions, which in turn affect our methodological assumptions. For this reason we cannot really pick a methodology arbitrarily since each methodology brings with it epistemological and ontological assumptions. Which is why psychoanalysts use couches rather than microscopes, and why behaviourists use Skinner boxes rather than questionnaires. Many philosophers have tried to clarify possibilities and limitations of science in terms of ontology, epistemology and methodology and it is worth looking at some of the more influential ideas and considering their implications for psychology. This is the area of the philosophy of science and we need now to review it.

What is the point of looking at the philosophy of science? How is it relevant to Psychology?

It is useful to acquaint ourselves with the philosophy of science for several reasons. First, we can see what a can of worms a question like ‘is psychology a science?’ really opens. There are many different definitions about what counts as science and psychology meets the criteria for some of these, but not others. Second, when we come to consider forms of psychology carried out outside of the traditional logical positivist mode, we can think more clearly about ways of evaluating those theories and studies if we have a more flexible idea of what science might entail a film porno. When we come later to review qualitative research we will see that we have to be so flexible that we might need to rethink our ideas about ‘science’ altogether.

How to get into Pediatrics

Well presented, not too long CV. (the paper used to be of good quality. photocopies always can be easily distinguished and can be picked out easily. It is advisable to use a folder and white envelopes to make the CV well `sent’.
A systematic but well categorized CV. for eg. Separate pages for personal details, work experience, information about each job previously done, including the non-paediatric bits, hobbies and aims.
More stress on the paediatric experience in UK. If post graduation done abroad, to mention only basic experience. (Over-experience can be a negative point for a training post)
Be precise and short in writing about job experience, if possible in point form.
Be sure to mention any distinctions, prizes and special academic/ non-academic performances, for eg. Participation in inter college/ state / national level activities.
References should be ideally from UK. Can be from the guide under whom you have done the post graduation. Always mention the address, phone and fax no for the panel to get in touch with the referees as easily as possible. (Most candidates are short listed prior to interview after the references are received.)
Previous experience:

For a MBBS graduate with no paediatrics done before, it is advisable to do at least a clinical attachment in UK. This helps in knowing the system well and to improve communication skills. This is especially useful in the field of neonatology.

For postgraduates (MD/DCH) it would be good to have a clinical attachment in UK on the CV. it is easier for you to get subspecialties than a fresh graduate. So if you desire experience in a particular field like endocrine, and you have already worked in it for a considerable period it would be a positive point

Clinical attachments:

A clinical observer post is a non-paid post and is recommended to do it in hospitals recognized by the royal college. There are many options but it is becoming increasingly difficult to get these posts and hence I would not be too fussy about the place. An attachment in a teaching hospital looks good on the CV and the referees may be more familiar. Also there can be a chance to do research / audit / presentation as an observer. However getting the job in a teaching hospital is more difficult especially if it is your first job.

The observer post in a district general hospital is easier and better in terms of getting the experience of common conditions and has a better job prospects. As a first time employee it is always better to start in a DGH for 6 months and then go on to rotations (which includes teaching hospitals) but it is not impossible to get rotations straight away as well. As I do know many overseas colleagues who have been lucky.

I found it useful and encouraging to do as many presentations as possible as an observer. This boosts your communication skills and helps your reading. Sometimes you are assigned topics and sometimes you have to make an active effort to express your wish to do so. This helps your references as well.

Audit s is an important part of training in UK and a SHO in his posting is expected to participate in at least I in 6 months.

Research and publications are strong points to get a job but more useful for registrar/ jobs in teaching hospitals, but not having them is not harmful and I think it is a matter of luck and time to do one before you get into employment.


It is advisable to have MRCPCH1 before applying for the job. It is easier to finish this exam as soon as passing PLAB or when you are a clinical observer.

Having a MD / DCH need not be a negative point always and some jobs advertised actually prefer candidates with reasonable experience.


The general appearance of the candidate is very important and the panel does make judgments about the personality from the body language and the confidence in answering questions.

It is not necessary to know / read paediatrics before the interview as many of the candidates may be house officers and doing their 1st paediatric posting. The interview is always in a very informal manner and the panel always try to make the candidate at home as much as possible. Its better to be honest in answering about topics especially if you do not know rather than building up stories. The level of knowledge expected is nothing more than a MBBS graduates and importance is given to how much of senior help you would take in clinical scenarios. You are never expected to make major decisions and it is good assurance to the panel if you prefer to call your senior in the slightest doubt rather than handling things yourself.

Commonly asked questions include details about the CV, the job experience, exams, carrier goals and the favourite … why you have chosen this field. Most of us practice these answers and it is good to come out with practical reasons like I like this filed because I had an experience and that taught me/ I think it is challenging rather than I want to serve this community and so on.

The other questions are on audits, clinical governance, some clinical scenarios (especially dealing with social problems/ emergencies) and finally where do you see yourself in 10 years time. You will also be asked about preference in specialties and honestly I think it is good to be neutral at the 1-st interview in answering that question. Also you will be asked your negative and positive points and why you think you should get this job. I think this really decides your final impression and it is extremely important to be positive and confidant but avoiding miraculous assumptions.

Courses to attend

MRCPCH 1 is a criterion for. The courses are conducted by hospitals but are expensive and you will have to pay if you are not employed in that hospital. For this exam it is important to concentrate on solving as many questions as possible rather than reading big textbooks diabetes from page 1. The mcq books need not be purchased and is easily available at hospital libraries. The result depends on the total percentage of the candidates to be passed in than exam and hence it is difficult to predict the lowest passing score.

APLS / PALS these are paediatric life support courses and are not the requirements for a job and they cost a lot. It is advisable to do these once you are employed, but if you get an opportunity to do it give s you an extra point on your CV.

Is compression ultrasound sufficient for diagnosing deep vein thromboses in the outpatient arena?

Clinical Bottom Lines:

1. Ultrasound with a follow-up study between 5 and 7 days, after the initial test, makes a bad outcome in patients with potential DVTs very unlikely. Much of this risk relates to the prevalence of the condition.

2. If there is high suspicion of a clot as a result of known predisposing factors then the diagnosis needs to be pursued with more vigor.

The Method/Evidence:

Consecutive outpatients were determined to have a normal or abnormal scan.

If abnormal the patients had a venogram, and if this was not done, they were started on heparin.

If the scan was normal, it was repeated 5 to 7 days later.

End points were death, or thromboembolic event.

Exclusions: if compression ultrasonography could not be done or there were technical limitations, follow-up was not assured, the patient had received therapeutic doses of heparin for more than 24 hours, or if the patient was pregnant.

Patients were followed up to 3 months after initial contact.

The negative likelihood ratio of no bad outcome after two negative tests is 2/6 divided by 333/397=0.397


1. Although this article did not address sensitivities and specificities, since a gold standard was not used for all patients, it did address a more important issue. What is the chance of having a bad event if your scans are negative? The answer looks like it’s very low. The reason it’s low is that the prevalence is low. This is why although the numbers look impressive the calculated likelihood ratios are not that impressive.

2. The researchers intentionally did not include a gold standard for negative tests because they wanted to see what the long term results would be if the patients were not treated. If they had obtained a venogram which showed clot it probably would have been unethical to withhold treatment. Unfortunately it is difficult to know if patients did well because the chances of a bad outcome were so low to start or for another reason.

3. The study probably needed more patients so that there were more events.

4. Although I would feel comfortable withholding heparin for a normal person, if your suspicion for clot is high secondary to known predisposing factors, eg cancer, lupus…, then you probably need to pursue the diagnosis more.

5. The study is actually good, but it depends on the prevalence of the disease.


Birdwell BG, Raskob GE, Whitsett TL, Durica SS, Comp PC, George JN, Tytle TL and McKee PA. The Clinical Validity of Normal Compression Ultrasonography in Outpatients Suspected of Having Deep Venous Thrombosis. Annals of Internal Medicine 1998: 128:1 1-7.


Biotechnology News

Sectoral Operational Programme: Improvement of the Competitiveness of Enterprises

The SOP-ICE objective is improvement of competitiveness of enterprises established in Poland, operating in the European Single Market. Improvement of the competitive position of enterprises will strengthen the competitiveness of the economy, defined as the long-term ability of an open, market economy, which is becoming part of the Single European Market, to withstand international competition (on the domestic, the EU and the third countries markets), as well as an ability to adapt effectively to the changing international environment and to achieve a sustainable economic growth. This should bridge the gap in the economic, social and technological spheres between Poland and more developed economies of the EU Member States

Who may get it?
little and medium Hi-Tech Bussines Firms,
firms investing in a environment protection,
firms making new investments,
R&D; Institutions.



In April, the Minister of Scientific Research and Information Technology (Ministerstwo Nauki i Informatyzacji) has announced the results of the contest for the Hi-Tech R&D; projects elaborated by different consortiums of Polish companies (mainly hi-tech start-ups) and research teams. 19 of them ,who were chosen due to interesting and innovative research projects, were given honorable status of Hi-Tech R&D; Centers. Centers with the best designs will be given 40 million EUR to carry on with their study. This is the crucial moment in Polish Biotechnology Research. We hope that this money injection will allow further industry development and will be a landmark especially for hi-tech start-ups. Hi-Tech R&D; Centers will need to propose their projects and suitable forms to the Market &Economy; Research Department (Departament Badan na Rzecz Gospodarki). According to the Minister of Scientific Research and Information Technology (Ministerstwo Nauki i Informatyzacji) the deadline will be given not before end of September.


Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology

The drastic rise in the use of non-biodegradable plastic materials, during the past three decades, has not been accompanied by a corresponding development of procedures for the safe disposal or degradation of these polymers. As a consequence, plastic wastes accumulating in the environment are posing an ever increasing ecological threat. The most problematic plastic, in this regard, is probably polyethylene, which- being resistant to microbial attack – is one of the most inert synthetic polymers. We have isolated several unique soil bacteria that can utilize polyethylene films as a sole carbon source resulting in partial degradation. These bacteria colonize the polyethylene surface forming a biofilm. Cell hydrophobicity of these bacteria was found to be an important factor in the formation of biofilm on the polyethylene surface and consequently enhances biodegradation of the polymer.

Future research goals include: Studying the mechanism involved in the biodegradation; Identifying the factors involved in the formation of the biofilm on the plastic surfaces; and studying the role of the biofilm in the biodegradation.

Potential collaborators – Microbiologists, Chemical Engineers or Chemists with interest in this research.

Source: Nacionelectrica.com

The most recent US patents on stem cells

6,132,718  Multi-stage cascade boosting vaccine  
6,130,364  Production of antibodies using Cre-mediated site-specific recombination  
6,130,316  Fusion proteins of novel CTLA4/CD28 ligands and uses therefore  
6,127,598  NKX-2.2 and NKX-6.1 transgenic mouse models for diabetes, depression, and obesity  
6,121,415  ErbB4 receptor-specific neuregolin related ligands and uses therefor  
6,121,030  CSAPK-2 protein and uses therefor  
6,118,045  Lysosomal proteins produced in the milk of transgenic animals  
6,117,654  Nucleic acid molecules encoding Tango-77-polypeptides  
6,117,650  Assay for cardiac hypertrophy  
6,114,598  Generation of xenogeneic antibodies  
6,114,123  Lipocalin family protein  
6,111,092  Nucleic acid molecules encoding DRT111 and uses thereof   
6,110,739  Method to produce novel embryonic cell populations  
6,110,718  Mammalian putative phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase  
6,107,543  Culture of totipotent embryonic inner cells mass cells and production of bovine animals  
6,107,472  Receptor-type tyrosine kinase-like molecules  
6,107,088  XAF genes and polypeptides: methods and reagents for modulating apoptosis  
6,106,832  Treatment of individuals exhibiting defective CD40L  
6,103,890  Enzymatic nucleic acids that cleave C-fos  
6,103,523  Pluripotent rabbit cell lines and method of making  
6,100,445  Transgenic knockout mouse having functionally disrupted interleukin-1.beta. converting enzyme gene  
6,100,444  Prostate specific regulatory nucleic acid sequences and transgenic non-human animals expressing prostate specific antigen  
6,100,443  Universal donor cells  
6,093,545  Methods for detecting nucleic acid molecules encoding a member of the muscarinic family of receptors  
6,093,393  Methods for preparing and using clonogenic fibroblasts and transfected clonogenic fibroblasts  
6,091,001  Production of antibodies using Cre-mediated site-specific recombination  
6,090,629  Efficient construction of gene targeting using phage-plasmid recombination  
6,090,622  Human embryonic pluripotent germ cells  
6,090,561  NF-AT-interacting protein NIP45 and methods of use therefor  
6,090,381  Stimulation of an immune response with antibodies labeled with the . .alpha-galactosyl epitope  
6,087,555  Mice lacking expression of osteoprotegerin  
6,087,166  Transcriptional activators with graded transactivation potential  
6,087,107  Therapeutics and diagnostics for congenital heart disease based on a novel human transcription factor  
6,086,900  Methods and compositions for using membrane-penetrating proteins to carry materials across cell membranes  
6,084,084  Human metabotropic glutamate receptor  
6,084,067  CTLA4/CD28 ligands and uses therefor  
6,083,911  Arenavirus receptor and methods of use  
6,080,911  Mice models of growth hormone insensitivity  
6,080,910  Transgenic knockout animals lacking IgG3  
6,080,550  Isolation and characterization of Agouti: a diabetes/obesity related gene  
6,077,990  PAR2 modified transgenic mice  
6,077,936  Multidrug resistance-associated polypeptide  
6,077,686  Shc proteins  
6,077,675  Human metabotropic glutamate receptor  
6,077,667  Method for chromosomal rearrangement by consecutive gene targeting of two recombination substrates to the deletion endpoints  
6,075,181  Human antibodies derived from immunized xenomice  
6,074,849  Polynucleotides encoding human CTLA-8 related proteins  
6,074,845  Nucleic acid encoding a bovine calcitonin receptor-like receptor (BECRLR)  
6,069,297  Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient mice and methods of using same  
6,069,010  High throughput gene inactivation with large scale gene targeting  
6,066,778  Transgenic mice expressing APC resistant factor V  
6,063,983  Monoclonal lymphocytes and methods of use  
6,063,359  Method for determining oncogenic activity of a substance  
6,060,642  Serotonin 5-HT6 receptor knockout mouse  
6,060,590  Chitinase related proteins and methods of use  
6,060,310  Transcription factor decoy and tumor growth inhibitor  
6,060,263  Mammalian lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase  
6,057,489  MmRad51-deficient cells and transgenic mice  
6,057,128  MU-1, member of the cytokine receptor family  
6,054,575  Mammalian telomerase RNA gene promoter  
6,051,690  NSP molecules  
6,051,688  Isolated human metabotropic glutamate receptor Mglur-8  
6,051,403  Nsp molecules  
6,046,048  Apo-2 ligand  
6,046,035  Polynucleotides encoding a cardiotrophin-like cytokine  
6,043,344  Human CTLA-8 and uses of CTLA-8-related proteins  
6,043,040  Csak-3 nucleic acid molecules and uses therefor  
6,037,168  Microbiological assembly comprising resealable closure means  
6,037,148  MTBX protein and nucleic acid molecules and uses therefor  
6,034,062  Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-9 compositions and their uses  
6,033,861  Methods for obtaining nucleic acid containing a mutation  
6,031,088  Polycystic kidney disease PKD2 gene and uses thereof  
6,031,078  MTbx protein and nucleic acid molecules and uses therefor  
6,031,003  Calcium receptor-active molecules  
6,030,833  Transgenic swine and swine cells having human HLA genes  
6,030,617  Use of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) to inhibit oocyte maturation  
6,028,244  Defective platelet activation in G.alpha..sub.q deficient mice  
6,028,243  Mice and cells with a homozygous disruption in the RNase L gene and methods therefore  
6,028,184  Pax6 and Pax4 nucleic acid mixtures  
6,027,917  Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-17 and BMP-18 compositions  
6,025,157  Neurturin receptor  
6,022,708  Fused  
6,020,194  DNA encoding a Myt1 polypeptide  
6,015,671  Myocardial grafts and cellular compositions  
6,015,670  Methods for identifying a mutation in a gene of interest without a phenotypic guide using ES cells  
6,015,554  Method of reconstituting human lymphoid and dendritic cells  
6,013,468  RNA component of telomerase  
6,011,197  Method of cloning bovines using reprogrammed non-embryonic bovine cells  
6,011,068  Calcium receptor-active molecules  
6,010,853  Siva genes, novel genes involved in CD27-mediated apoptosis  
6,008,434  Growth differentiation factor-11 transgenic mice  
6,004,941  Methods for regulating gene expression  
6,002,066  H2-M modified transgenic mice  
6,001,588  Introns and exons of the cystic fibrosis gene and mutations thereof  
5,998,204  Fluorescent protein sensors for detection of analytes  
5,998,187  Receptor tyrosine kinase  
5,998,136  Selection systems and methods for identifying genes and gene products involved in cell proliferation  
5,994,620  Induced chromosomal deletion  
5,994,619  Production of chimeric bovine or porcine animals using cultured inner cell mass cells  
5,994,618  Growth differentiation factor-8 transgenic mice  
5,994,523  Melanoma antigens and their use in diagnostic and therapeutic methods  
5,994,130  Multidrug resistance-associated polypeptide  
5,994,075  Methods for identifying a mutation in a gene of interest without a phenotypic guide  
5,990,281  Vertebrate smoothened proteins  
5,989,914  Integration cassette for improvement of transgenesis in eukaryotes  
5,986,056  Chordin compositions  
5,985,660  Method of identifying biological response modifiers involved in dendritic and/or lymphoid progenitor cell proliferation and/or differentiation  
5,985,659  Embryonic stem cell lines obtained from C3H/HeN and DBA/1J mouse strains  
5,985,615  Directed switch-mediated DNA recombination  
5,985,602  Secreted proteins and polynucleotides encoding them  
5,981,830  Knockout mice and their progeny with a disrupted hepsin gene  
5,981,277  Polypeptides and peptides, nucleic acids coding for them, and their use in the field of tumor therapy, inflammation or immunology

More US patents on stem cells

6,238,429  Biologic cabling  
6,235,970  CICM cells and non-human mammalian embryos prepared by nuclear transfer of a proliferating differentiated cell or its nucleus  
6,235,969  Cloning pigs using donor nuclei from non-quiescent differentiated cells  
6,235,878  Fas ligand-like protein, its production and use  
6,235,708  Testis-specific cystatin-like protein cystatin T  
6,235,481  Polynucleotides encoding calpain 10  
6,231,893  Immunosuppressive and tumour-suppressive bone marrow factor  
6,228,639  Vectors and methods for the mutagenesis of mammalian genes  
6,228,591  Polycystic kidney disease PKD2 gene and uses thereof  
6,228,583  Assays for compounds which extend life span  
6,225,525  ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC1) modified transgenic mice  
6,225,456  Ras suppressor SUR-5  
6,225,121  Eukaryotic transposable element  
6,225,101  Isolated Myt1 polypeptide  
6,225,085  LRSG protein and nucleic acid molecules and uses therefor  
6,224,870  Vaccine compositions and methods of modulating immune responses  
6,222,029  5′ ESTs for secreted proteins expressed in brain  
6,221,647  Efficient construction of gene targeting using phage-plasmid recombination  
6,221,643  Methods for diagnosis and treatment of Bloom’s syndrome  
6,218,510  B7-1 and B7-2 polypeptides  
6,218,356  Neural receptor tyrosine kinase  
6,218,181  Retroviral packaging cell line  
6,218,162  SH2-containing inositol-phosphatase  
6,215,041  Cloning using donor nuclei from a non-quiesecent somatic cells  
6,214,597  CSAPK-3 protein and uses therefor  
6,210,921  CAR: a novel coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor  
6,207,876  Adenosine deaminase deficient transgenic mice and methods for the use thereof  
6,207,450  Glaucoma therapeutics and diagnostics based on a novel human transcription factor  
6,207,431  Glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, its production and use  
6,204,432  PA28 modified transgenic mice  
6,204,364  Hybrid cytokines  
6,204,035  Methods and compositions to alter the cell surface expression of phosphatidylserine and other clot-promoting plasma membrane phospholipids  
6,204,013  MSP-5 nucleic acid molecules and uses therefor  
6,201,168  Pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy  
6,201,107  Cystic fibrosis gene  
6,200,806  Primate embryonic stem cells  
6 6,200,780  Human interferon-.epsilon.(IFN-.epsilon.), a type I interferon  
6,200,770  Protein kinase molecules and uses therefor  
6,200,769  Mammalian CDP-diacylglycerol synthase  
6,200,567  Therapeutic agents as cytokine antagonists and agonists  
6,197,928  Fluorescent protein sensors for detection of analytes  
6,197,751  Thymosin .alpha.1 promotes tissue repair, angiogenesis and cell migration  
6,197,578  Cells expressing both human CD4 and a human fusion accessory factor associated with HIV infection  
6,197,575  Vascularized perfused microtissue/micro-organ arrays  
6,197,551  Spoil-1 protein and nucleic acid molecules and uses therefor  
6,197,530  GPR10 as a target for identifying weight modulating compounds  
6,194,635  Embryonic germ cells, method for making same, and using the cells to produce a chimeric porcine  
6,194,633  Non-human animal having a functionally disrupted SLP-76 gene  
6,194,212  Vectors comprising SAR elements  
6,194,152  Prostate tumor polynucleotide compositions and methods of detection thereof  
6,194,151  Molecules of the TNF receptor superfamily and uses therefor  
6,191,154  Compositions and methods for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, central nervous system injury, and inflammatory diseases  
6,190,910  Mouse embryonic stem cell lines  
6,190,887  Expression of an exogenous gene in a mammalian cell by use of a non-mammalian DNA virus having an altered coat protein  
6,190,874  Methods for identifying compounds that bind to CSAPK-1  
6,187,992  Transgenic mouse having a disrupted amyloid precursor protein gene  
6,184,436  Transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 in immune cells  
6,184,035  Methods for isolation and activation of, and control of differentiation from, skeletal muscle stem or progenitor cells  
6,183,993  Complement-resistant non-mammalian DNA viruses and uses thereof  
6,183,962  Protein kinase molecules and uses therefor  
6,183,744  Immunotherapy of B-cell malignancies using anti-CD22 antibodies  
6,180,358  Methods for identifying compounds that bind to CSPAK-2  
6,177,244  NPG-1 gene that is differentially expressed in prostate tumors  
6,174,682  Thioredoxin family active site molecules and uses therefor  
6,174,674  Method of detecting a chromosomal rearrangement involving a breakpoint in the ALK or NPM gene  
6,172,278  Ikaros transgenic cells and mice  
6,171,824  Hybrid cytokines  
6,168,933  Phospholipid transfer protein  
6,166,289  IRAK modified transgenic animals  
6,166,192  PGC-1, a novel brown fat PPAR.gamma. coactivator  
6,166,178  Telomerase catalytic subunit  
6,165,755  Chicken neuropeptide gene useful for improved poultry production  
6,165,748  Frazzled nucleotide sequences and expression products  
6,165,719  hKCa3/KCNN3 small conductance calcium activated potassium channel: a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target  
6,162,963  Generation of Xenogenetic antibodies  
6,162,616  Multidrug resistance-associated polypeptide  
6,159,691  Assay for a putative regulator of cell cycle progression  
6,156,733  Use of leukemia inhibitory factor and endothelin antagonists  
6,156,569  Prolonged culturing of avian primordial germ cells (PGCs) using specific growth factors, use thereof to produce chimeric avians  
6,156,306  Pancreatic .beta.-cells for allogeneic transplantation without immunosuppression  
6,153,428  .alpha.(1,3) galactosyltransferase negative porcine cells  
6,153,417  CSAPK-1 protein and uses therefor  
6,150,169  Expression of the heterologous genes according to a targeted expression profile  
6,147,276  Quiescent cell populations for nuclear transfer in the production of non-human mammals and non-human mammalian embryos  
6,146,888  Method of enriching for mammalian stem cells  
6,146,841  Methods for identifying compounds that bind to CSAPK-3 molecules and fragments thereof  
6,146,832  Protein kinase molecules and uses therefor  
6,143,566  Methods of performing homologous recombination based modification of nucleic acids in recombination deficient cells and use of the modified nucleic acid products thereof  
6,143,540  Molecules of the HKID-1-related protein family and uses thereof  
6,140,121  Methods and compositions to improve germ cell and embryo survival and function  
6,140,083  Leptospiral outer membrane protein, LipL46  
6,140,056  MSP-18 protein and nucleic acid molecules and uses therefor  
6,139,835  Homologous recombination for allogeneic donor cells  
6,136,964  Mammalian lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase  
6,136,958  Antibodies to vertebrate smoothened proteins  
6,136,954  Tetracycline-inducible transcriptional activator fusion proteins  
6,136,539  Compositions and methods for the inhibition of MUC-5 mucin gene expression  
6,136,040  Animal model with disrupted FGF-9 gene  
6,133,503  Mammalian artificial chromosomes and methods of using same.

EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS: Does it all start here? What does the patent landscape look like?

The Potential is Real – The Confusion is Overwhelming – The Passion is Blinding.  So What do we do? Is sticking our heads in the sand of ignorance the right approach?

We wanted to explore what is going on in the intellectual property front of the embryonic stem cell landscape.  This will provide insight into what the research and business enterprises focus in.  it will shed light on directions, possibilities, and actualities.

Note though, that not all that’s patented is all that there is … for example the Geron Corporation is associated with only the following patents associated directly with embryonic stem cells.
Clearly, from title analysis, Mammalian Telomerase is a one of their major keys to the lock.
PAT. NO.  Title 
1 6,258,535  Mammalian telomerase  
2 6,166,178  Telomerase catalytic subunit  
3 6,147,276  Quiescent cell populations for nuclear transfer in the production of non-human mammals and non-human mammalian embryos  
4 6,054,575  Mammalian telomerase RNA gene promoter  
5 5,958,680  Mammalian telomerase  
6 5,837,857  Mammalian telomerase  
7 5,776,679  Assays for the DNA component of human telomerase  
8 5,583,016  Mammalian telomerase
PATENT #  Title 
6,274,363  Phosphatidylcholine phospholipase D  
6,274,362  RGS-containing molecules and uses thereof  
6,274,338  Human c-Maf compositions and methods of use thereof  
6,274,309  Method for the modulation of acid-sphingomyelinase-related apoptosis  
6,271,436  Cells and methods for the generation of transgenic pigs  
6,271,348  Tetracycline-inducible transcriptional inhibitor fusion proteins  
6,271,341  Transcriptional activators with graded transactivation potential  
6,270,778  Melanoma antigens and their use in diagnostic and therapeutic methods  
6,268,135  Phospholipase molecule and uses therefor  
6,268,130  RP compositions and diagnostic uses therefor  
6,265,564  Expressed ligand-vascular intercellular signalling molecule  
6,265,546  Prostate cancer gene  
6,262,337  Transgenic animal with recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B DNA) and uses thereof  
6,262,235  Leptospiral outer membranes protein, LipL46  
6,262,035  Gene replacement therapy for muscular dystrophy  
6,261,818  CARK protein and nucleic acid molecules and uses therefor  
6,258,998  Method of cloning porcine animals  
6,258,582  CSAPTP nucleic acid molecules and uses therefor  
6,258,557  Smooth muscle cell LIM promoter  
6,258,535  Mammalian telomerase  
6,255,473  Presenilin-1 gene promoter  
6,255,458  High affinity human antibodies and human antibodies against digoxin  
6,255,112  Regulation of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation by the use of human mesenchymal stem cells  
6,252,136  Transgenic organisms having tetracycline-regulated transcriptional regulatory systems  
6,252,132  Mutant mouse containing a knockout mutation in DNA encoding an endogenous alpha 4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor  
6,252,051  ErbB4 receptor-specific neuregulin related ligand antibodies and uses therefor  
6,251,671  Compositions and methods of making embryonic stem cells  
6,248,934  Gene trap vectors  
6,248,527  Method of detecting risk of type II diabetes based on mutations found in carboxypeptidase E  
6,245,969  Receptor kinase, Bin1  
6,245,566  Human embryonic germ cell line and methods of use  
6,245,529  Testis-specific cystatin-like protein cystatin T  
6,245,527  Nucleic acid molecules encoding glycoprotein VI and recombinant uses thereof  
6,242,667  Transgenic organisms having tetracycline-regulated transcriptional regulatory porno mexicano systems  
6,242,588  Testis specific glycoprotein zpep10  
6 6,242,236  Method of promoting enzyme diversity  
6,239,326  Sparc-deficient transgenic mice  
6,238,903  SH2-containing inositol-phosphatase  
6,238,881  Nucleic acids and polypeptides related to a guanine exchange factor of Rho GTPase